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Age-old practice of grape cultivation in Kashmir needs revival

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grape cultivation in Kashmir

Syed Aamir Sharief Qadri         

Grape cultivation in Kashmir! Harud, the harvesting season of Kashmir starts from mid-September to mid-November. During this period people are busy cutting paddy, picking fruits, unearthing underground veggies, etc. These days people harvest grapes to keep a share and give away the rest to neighbours, relatives and friends. You should know this except for a few areas of Kashmir grapes are not grown for commercial purposes.

The soil and climate have always been suitable for the progress of horticulture in Kashmir. Viticulture or winegrowing is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. In old days Kashmir was known for its luscious grapes. Grapes – Dach in Kashmiri, is a highly nutritious fleshy fruit with numerous health benefits. It grows in bunches.

Throughout Kashmir’s history, the ruling dynasties and monarchs from time to time took interest in the cultivation of grapes. But today it has entered the dark phase of history. Neither the government nor the people take serious note to revive this age-old practice. The grape plant is found almost in the home garden of every household in Kashmir still, people don’t pay attention to cultivating it extensively.

The vale of vineyards

The majority of historians agree with the fact that Kashmir produced many varieties of fruit in abundance from the ages. The kings, nobles, merchants and religious saints together planted every kind of tree whether fruit-bearing or shady tree to promote the garden culture of Kashmir. Fruit cultivation especially grape cultivation in Kashmir has been practised since ancient times. We have a glimpse of the aristocratic asrama life of the Saiva gurus standing on a mandapa with a goblet full of wine in the middle of the vineyard (MA Wani, Islam in Kashmir). Many nobles had their fruit gardens. Raja Amar Singh and Diwan Amar Nath during the Dogra period maintained their vineyards.

Grape cultivation in Kashmir

Photo: Suliman Saith

Kalhana writes, Grapes”which were scarce even in heaven were common in Kashmir”. There is a reference to grape, grapevine, and vineyards in many ancient chronicles of Kashmir. While Kalhana’s Rajatarangini mentions ‘The town of Martanda (present-day Matan) was swelling with grapes during king Lalitadityas time’, Huen Tsang who visited Kashmir in the seventh century CE makes it clear that Kashmir produced abundant fruits and flowers (Samuel Beal, Si- Yu- Ki). The 11th-century Kashmiri poet Bilhana while praising the beauties of his homeland in his poetic verses mentioned growing of grapes in abundance in Kashmir.

One side of it yields saffron,

lovely by nature,

the other grapes, pale as the sweet cane

that grows alongside the Sarayu

(Bilhaṇa,  Vikramāṅkadevacarita; trans. Whitney Cox)

Fruit formed a regular article of diet. Among the principal fruits that were eaten during medieval times pears, cherries, plums, apricots, grapes, apples, and peaches were found in abundance. An excerpt from the book- Kashmir Under The Sultans,  “Fruits were grown in such abundance that they were rarely bought or sold. The owner of a garden and the man who had no garden were all alike, for the gardens had no walls, and no one was prevented from picking the fruits.” This claim is supported by medieval records like Tarikh-e- Rushdi and Tarikh-e-Firishta. Different kinds of drinks were made from fresh fruits among them Sharbat Angoor was quite famous. The grapes were also used in making jams (murabbha).

Grapes were cultivated all over Kashmir, and vineyards were found at every nook and corner of the valley. The vines were allowed to grow on the poplars and mulberry trees (Mutamad Khan, Iqbal Nama Jahangiri). Since the local grapes were not of superior quality, Akbar introduced new varieties like Sahibi, Kishmishi, etc. (Jahangir, Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri). Bagh-e-Dilawar Khan was a famous site for vine culture and there were more than 18 varieties raised in this orchard (Moorcraft & Trebeck, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Ladakh and Kashmir). Superior varieties were cultivated in Lar and Repora (Hassan Shah, Tarikh-i- Kashmir).

Grape cultivation in Kashmir

Photo: Suliman Saith

While Abul Fazl praises some fruits and considered them better than the tropical fruits of the plains of India he held an adverse opinion about grapes. He said,  “though grapes were in plenty, finer qualities were rare”. This view is supported by Bernier when he says “with the introduction of better grafts from foreign countries and by paying more attention to planting and soil, the Kashmir fruit would attain the same degree of perfection as the French”.

The quality of indigenous grapes was improved side by side. In 1590 CE Muhammad Quli Ifshar, the Daroga of the gardens, first of all, grafted Kashmir fruit trees with peaches brought from Kabul. The experiment succeeded and grafting has since then been widely practised. Zafar Khan Ahsan the governor under Shah Jahan also improved the quality and taste of the cherry, plum, peach, and grapes by using better grafts and planting imported saplings from Persia and Kabul (PNK Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir, Vol 2).

During the Sikh and Dogra periods, thousands of acres were covered with vines in full bearing. Moorcraft proclaimed, “There are said to be eighteen or twenty varieties of grapes in Kashmir of which four were of foreign introduction. These are the Sahibi, of an oblong shape and red colour; the Maska, round and yellowish-white; the Hoseini, of the same colour but long; and the Kishmish, yellowish-white or green, round and seedless; this last is small but the other three are large, the Sahibi sometimes measuring four inches in its largest circumference. They are all thin-skinned, and grow in considerable bunches; those of the Maska is not infrequently of the weight of five or six pounds. The Sahibi and Maska are both fine table- grapes; wine and raisins might be made from the other two. These sorts are usually cultivated on high horizontal trellises of wood. The indigenous vines are generally planted at the foot of poplar and run up to the height of fifty or sixty feet, bearing an abundance of fruit. The grapes are commonly thick-skinned and rather rough and astringent, but juicy”. There are six varieties of grapes mentioned in ‘A Gazetteer of Kashmir’ by CE Bates which was published in 1873.

Grapes in market

The difficulty of terrain and transportation discouraged fruit growers from exporting grapes from Kashmir. Besides, the fast perishing nature of pulpy fruits that lost their taste and texture within weeks of harvest did not attract the merchant class. These delicate fruits were too fragile to be transported from one place to another. Due to the long journey, they used to spoil before reaching the market. However, with the modern modes of transport laden with CAS (Controlled Atmospheric Storage) and better connectivity this all can change now.

We don’t have enough sources to know about the export of fruits from Kashmir. But a few references are there to make us believe that grapes were exported from the beginning though not on large scale but in limited quantities. Abul Fazl in his work Ain-i-Akbari mentions that “Kashmiris bring grapes on their backs in long baskets.” Though not a primary article of trade fresh fruits and dried raisins in limited quantities were included in the export list (Jahangir, Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri). It means both grapes and dried raisins were in demand in mainland India during Mughal Period.

Niccolo Munucci an Italian traveller mentions large quantities of vegetables and fruit were exported to the Indian market. During the 17th century, the fruit merchants reached as far as south India with the fruits (Kalimatu Taibat, Ed. Inayatullah Khan). Grapes used to sell at 108 dams a maund in Mughal times (Abul Falz, Ain-e-Akbari).

Sind Valley: The heaven of delicious grapes

Grape cultivation in Kashmir

Photo: Suliman Saith

Sind valley in past as well as in the present day is known for its finest grapes. Walter R. Lawrence in his famous book The Valley Of Kashmir mentioned a few vineyards at the mouth of the Sind valley. He has also praised the white and red grapes of the state vineyard at Raipur during Dogra Period in Kashmir. Thakur Janak Singh the military commander had built a bungalow there known as Bungli Bagh which is now in ruins. This is the present-day Repora village located in Lar block in central Kashmir’s district Ganderbal- The grape town of Kashmir. For many centuries now Sind valley is known for its fresh delicious and quality grapes.

From vine to wine

Grapes were particularly valued as a fruit and were also used in brewing wine. Drinking wine seems to have been quite popular since the ancient period. The wine and grapes in Kashmir were local products. The tantric ritual required the use of liquor, hence as a prestigious item of consumption, Kashmir preserved its wine culture. Kalhana says, “both men and women were addicted to drinking”. The wine, cooled and perfumed with flowers, was appreciated as a delicious drink. It is written in Nilmatpurana that wine has been recommended, especially on ceremonial occasions.

There are many references which show that making and drinking wine was not prohibited during the Sultanate period, even though it was strongly disapproved by large section of the society. Most of the Sultans and their nobles imbibed liquor regularly (Jonaraja, Dvitiya Rajatarangini). Zainul Abidin took it in moderation, but Haider Shah was a confirmed drunkard and, as a result, neglected his state duties. Hasan Shah was in the habit of arranging drinking parties in his palace or in the boats on the Jehlum, and used to get drunk on these occasions (Srivara, Jaina Rajatarangini).

Locally the liquor was called ‘mas’ (Jahangir, Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri). Soft liquor of various types was used by all (Mohammad Sadiq Kumbu, Amal-i-Salih). It was distilled from grapes, barley, rice and mulberries (Mutamad Khan, Iqbal Nama Jahangiri). On festive occasions, there was free consumption of liquor by the participants. Anguri and Qandi were the cherished drinks of singers (Nath Pandith, Gulshan-i- Dastur). But there appears to have been a substantial decrease in liquor consumption during the later half of the 17th century (Majid Mattoo, Kashmir Under The Mughals).

Although the Islamization of Kashmir took many centuries, this tradition gradually discontinued among people but was kept alive by the ruling class. For a short period, Afghans stopped making wine but the tradition was later restarted by the Sikhs Rulers.

The consumption of alcohol is prohibited in Sikhism, but drinking culture is often associated with Punjabi culture. Moorcraft writes: “After harvesting grapes in October, they were kept in shallow earthen vessels till spring, then they were applied to the fabrication of wine, vinegar and brandy. The manufacture is ill-conducted, and the liquor is kept in bottles, which are stopped only with plugs of wood, twisted bark, or paper. No wonder therefore that the beverage is indifferent, but such as it is, it is sufficiently good to show that, with proper treatment and care, the wines of Kashmir might be made to rival many of those of Europe.”

Grape cultivation in Kashmir

Photo: Suliman Saith

Dogra Rulers took great interest by investing large amounts to boost this industry. On the shore of Dal Lake, Dogra rulers occupied 389 acres of land for vine cultivation. The vines were introduced from the Bordeaux district (the famed wine-growing region in France) in Maharaja Ranbir Singh’s time. To make as good as Medoc and Barsac varieties of wine high-priced distillery plant was imported and set up at Gupkar on Dal Lake. Two Italians, named Signor Benvenuti and Signor Bassi, were employed to look after vineyards and wine factories (Walter R. Lawrence, The valley of Kashmir).

Why there is a need to revive grape cultivation in Kashmir

Kashmir has great potential to evolve as a booming grape cultivation hub. It is high time to reintroduce this crop for some good reasons:

First, The growth of horticulture with the revival of grape cultivation in Kashmir will immensely contribute to J&K’s economy.

Second, it will play its role to absorb a large number of unemployed youth thus reducing the unemployment rate which is at an all-time high in the state.

Third, if introduced in economically backward districts of Kashmir it will help poverty-stricken to uplift their life.

Forth, If the vale of Kashmir once again became a centre of viticulture then entrepreneurship in this field will surely flourish. The bumper crop will attract investors to apply new ideas with the latest techniques.

A poet and writer, the author has done his MA in History from the University of Kashmir and MPhil from Punjabi University, Patiala. Presently, he is a freelance columnist. You can contact him at aamirsharief45@gmail.com

AgriBiz

Deteriorating legacy of saffron industry in Kashmir

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Saffron industry in Kashmir
Athar Ayoub
Dhaar Mehak M  

Saffron industry in Kashmir

One of the oldest and yielding family occupations prevalent in the valley of Kashmir has been the cultivation of Saffron. The karewas of Pampore are internationally known for the quality and quantity of saffron across the world. Through the ups and downs of time and periods of natural and man-prompted disasters, this sector has been quietly yielding a stable and rather steadily growing output over the period of time. Generations after generation have been associated with the cultivation and rearing of saffron. People across the binary gender, residing predominantly in the Pampore area have been habitually and evolutionarily working in this sector.

On the technical side, though India ranks second only after Iran in terms of productivity of cultivation in Saffron it ranks seven. This points to the existence of huge inefficiency in the saffron production of the country. For years at a stretch, there has been under-production happening in the saffron production of the country. More than 90% of India’s saffron cultivation comes from Kashmir, estimated to be around 15.04 metric tonnes (MT) for the year 2021. However, for the last fifty years, there has been a considerable decline in both the cultivable land and the overall Saffron productivity in the valley of Kashmir. While in the year 2009, the total area under cultivation for Saffron was 2667 hectares with a production of 5.61 tonnes, almost a decade earlier in 1997 it was 5707 hectares and 15.97 tonnes respectively. These numbers highlight a decline of 114% in area and 184% in yield in a time period as short in span as 12 years.

For years at a stretch, there has been under-production happening in the saffron production of the country. More than 90% of India’s saffron cultivation comes from Kashmir, estimated to be around 15.04 metric tonnes (MT) for the year 2021. However, for the last fifty years, there has been a considerable decline in both the cultivable land and the overall Saffron productivity in the valley of Kashmir. While in the year 2009, the total area under cultivation for Saffron was 2667 hectares with a production of 5.61 tonnes, almost a decade earlier in 1997 it was 5707 hectares and 15.97 tonnes respectively. These numbers highlight a decline of 114% in area and 184% in yield in a time period as short in span as 12 years.

Results like these are an outcome of a number of factors that have cumulated over the years. Some of the most commonly identified factors include; lack of availability of good-quality corms as seed material, poor soil fertility, lack of assured irrigation, infestation by rodents and diseases, poor postharvest management, improper marketing facilities, increased urbanization on saffron land, the helplessness of the Government in checking adulteration and clandestine smuggling of cheap saffron (allegedly from Iran), which is later sold and marketed in the name of Kashmir saffron.

Simultaneously from time to time, certain measures have been put in place to restrain the underproduction in Saffron cultivation, so as to bring in a change and reach as closer to the potential output as possible. The fundamental channel of intervention and attainment of the aspired output is from the government directly to the grower. Quite contrary to this, the existence of intermediaries leads to multiple failures towards the attainment of the prosed outcomes. Analysing the current trends, it turns out that in the past decades the maximum marketing margins were accumulated within the pockets of intermediaries (retailers and agents) followed by wholesalers, leaving the primary saffron growers with an unfair share of their very own produce.

The saffron growers reveal that in contemporary times the causes of less productivity across the Kashmir region are: climate change, non-availability of timely irrigation and information asymmetry between those framing the policies for the farmers and the farmers themselves. Though the government has been initiating measures to revamp the damage, the Saffron cultivators conclude that almost 60% of the land under which saffron is cultivated was brought under a pipeline network scheduled to irrigate the land. However, in practice, the project has been full of flaws and thus ended up failing miserably. Leaving the land yet again to the mercy of timely and untimely rains. The saffron growers in the first place lack scientific knowledge, do not have access to modern know-how and technology and at the same time lack all sorts of trust over the government. One such typical example is the sale of hybrid saffron corms that the government announced some years ago. Given the mistrust between the people and the government, it was rumoured that the sowing of the hybrid saffron corm distributed by the department of agriculture will transfer the private property rights of the owners to the government. As a result, the vast majority of saffron cultivators didn’t take those corms and the productivity and output ended up remaining under-attained.

Whatever interventions the government and administration intend to make, the campaign of enhancing the productivity of saffron would not bear the desired results unless for starters a certain level of trust is established between the saffron cultivators and the government. Following this, facilities for assured irrigation need to be created, at least at the pre-sprouting and pre-flowering stages. Irrigation facilitates lead quick activation of buds, further leading to the corm sprouting and the eventual timely flower initiation. An empirical study by Nehvi (2004), and Nehvi and Makhdoomi (2007b) bring forth the fact that an annual saffron crop requires an average of 10 irrigations, and needs to be sprinkler irrigated for seven days at the sprouting stage (which is approximately around 25th August to 15th September) followed by three irrigations at the post-flowering stage (around 8th to 30th November) at weekly intervals.

In a recent and rather unusual move, the Government of India initiated a National Saffron Mission (year) with a financial outlay of Rs 3.74 billion for resolving the saffron crisis in Kashmir through different programmes. This program includes rejuvenating saffron farms by corm re-planting, digging bore wells for irrigation, and setting up a modern Saffron Park with a quality control laboratory for providing adequate marketing cover to saffron growers, thus eliminating exploitation by middlemen. However, from the ground, there are mixed reactions and opinions coming from the farmers about the initiation and implementation of the mission. The actual attained outcome from this mission and its various programs is yet to be ascertained for success or failure.                                                        Saffron Industry in Kashmir.

Saffron Industry in Kashmir

Case-Study

“The JK Agro” is a registered saffron firm which has been gainfully employing generations of the Khanday family from Pampore. It has been around six years since the third generation has overtaken the business. The upcoming generations from the saffron families have been trying to expand and diversify the business. One of the most common channels has been through proper marketing, e-marketing and processing of the saffron and allied products. JK Agro, in an attempt to expand, has been making huge investments. But the major hurdle faced by it in attaining the expected growth has been the declining productivity of output. As a result, the younger generation of small and medium-scale saffron farmers have steadily been moving out from the industry and instead looking for other sources of employment. However, families like Khanday’s are of the opinion that complete dependency on saffron might not be enough to fulfil their subsistence needs and hence are trying hard to find jobs distant from their ancestral domain…

Given the various facets discussed above, the broader conclusion drawn is that the decline in the cultivable land and productivity of saffron in Kashmir is the basic reason behind the ever-increasing crisis in the heritage-saffron industry of Kashmir. The most appropriate channel to win back the industry and the people associated with it is to stake strict actions towards the restoration of the karewas land and to scientifically enhance the overall productivity of the saffron in the Kashmir region.

The authors are affiliated with the Department of Economics, Islamic University of Science and Technology and can be reached at dhaarmehak@gamil.com

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Digital marketing skill training for agri-startups commences at SKUAST-K

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Digital marketing skills
BK News

Srinagar, Dec 5: A weeklong advanced management development programme (AMDP) on ‘Digital Marketing Skills for Agri-Startups’ commenced on Monday at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir Shalimar campus.

The seven-day digital marketing training is organised by SKUAST-K’s School of Agricultural Economics and Horti-Business Management, Faculty of Horticulture under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sponsorship.

Vice Chancellor, SKUAST-K, Prof Nazir Ahmad Ganai, who was the chief guest at the inaugural function, emphasised upon outcome-based delivery of the programme and suggested that each participant should be evaluated in each session to ensure better assimilation of the content. Pointing out the existence of a 95% unskilled labour force, he stressed the need for required digital skills. He informed that SKUAST-K will be shortly starting the three-month programme on Digital Marketing in collaboration with DMI, Australia. He asked the participants to take full advantage of the resource persons, who have come from the reputed institutions of the country like IITs.

Director, Planning and Monitoring, Prof Haroon Rashid Naik emphasized imparting precision to the conduct of Advanced-MDP and desired industrial representation and participation in these programmes.

Dean, Faculty of Horticulture, Prof Shabir Ahmad Wani highlighted the need for encouragement of gender-based digital spaces. He also stressed the need for the utilisation of digital spaces for farm-based products.

Head, School of Agricultural Economics and Horti-Business Management, Prof SH Baba, in his welcome address, gave an overview of the programme. He brought out the need for acquiring high-end digital and IT skills for switching to new market jobs by 2030-31 in view of apprehension of job losses due to automation.

Assistant Director, MSME Development and Facilitation Office Srinagar Branch, Ministry of MSME, Saheel Yaqoob Allaqband, who addressed the gathering via online mode, gave a brief account on the importance of Advanced-MDP suggested that the participants should be trained in innovative DPR formulation and attract funding options for their business units.

SKUAST-K’s Director Extension Prof Dil Mohammad Makhdoomi, Director Education Prof MN Khan, Director Research Prof Sarfaraz Ahmad Wani and many other HOD and officers of the university were present at the occasion. The organising secretary of the programme, Dr Omar Fayaz Khan, presented the vote of thanks.

About 30 participants from FPOs, food processing units, Agri-supply chains, aspiring agripreneurs and students are participating in the training.

Under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), SKUAST-K is conducting 66 advanced skill development courses for entrepreneurship in various agricultural and allied vocations.

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Can kiwi cultivation prove alternative to apple production in Kashmir?

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Can kiwi cultivation prove alternative to apple production in Kashmir?

Dhaar Mehak M

Misbah Bashir

The horticulture sector is seen as the backbone of the Kashmir economy steadily replacing the tourism sector in terms of sustainability and future prospectus. Given the environmental feasibility, Kashmir has been identified as one of India’s most dynamic horticulture hotspots. During the final decades of the 20th century, the region of Kashmir has seen a steady shift from paddy cultivation to apple cultivation. For quite some time the output and outcomes from the orchards of Kashmir have been high. This has ushered in a wave of optimism and people have been heavily investing in high-yielding apple varieties. More or less on an annual basis, people have revealed satisfaction with the outcomes.

Can kiwi cultivation prove alternative to apple production in Kashmir?

The year 2022 has been identified as a bumper year of apple production in Kashmir (apart from other horticulture products). The apple blooms in spring were studied and identified by the experts where it was predicted that the year from across the valley was going to deliver a bumper crop. A wave of happiness ad optimism ran in the supply chain from orchardists to the dealers. Given the demand and pricing trends of previous years, the expected outcomes from 2022 were anticipated to surpass the mean value of the previous decades by a double-digit. However, as the output was ready and entered the market, the returning price was the lowest registered in the previous decade. Among many other factors, a predominant factor behind this was the bulk Indian import of Iranian and Turkish Apples that captured the market and wiped out the demand for Kashmiri apples.

Looking through an alternative economic and horticultural lens, the complete reliance on apples as the sole and dominant outcome of the horticulture sector in Kashmir is a risk of putting all the eggs in one basket. The first step to diversification has been identified as a steady production of kiwi fruit. In contemporary times the only state that is producing kiwis in India is Himachal Pradesh. Lately, Himachal orchardists have realized that diversification is important, and the immediate consequence has been a steady shift to kiwi production. The environmental conditions in both Himachal and Kashmir are equally preferable for kiwi production.

Can kiwi cultivation prove alternative to apple production in Kashmir?The plantation season for kiwi trees is February and March, while the irrigation season is May to July. The plantation takes much less land space than the apple trees. Vegetables and other seasonal crops can be grown in-between the kiwi tress. There are no pesticides of any kind needed for kiwi plantations while on the other hand the apples of all types highly rely on a number of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides. This quality makes kiwis organic in nature, better fitting the contemporary market demand. The overall maintenance of kiwi plantations is much easier and cheaper as compared to that of apples. At the same time, the demand and prices for kiwis in the local, national and international markets is much stable as compared to that of apples.

In the first week of November the average price of 18 kgs of Apples in Sopore Mandi peaked at Rs.350 which doesn’t even cover the half basic price of production. Quite contrary to this, one unit of kiwi costs Rs.35 in the local market and one kiwi plant yields 70 kg of kiwis on an average. One kg of dried Kiwis costs Rs.1800 in the market. And the demand for kiwis is very high both in the national and the international markets.

At the moment, SKUAST-K is actively researching in the direction of improvising the kiwi plantation suitable specifically to the Kashmir region. Simultaneously, sale of the kiwi trees is carried-out from time to time. Lately a small number of orchardists from the Baramulla and Sopore area of North Kashmir have been steadily diversifying towards kiwi production. However, during their experimental stages, they are more than happy with their outcomes. The market value of the output has been promising and so is the durability of the output. The kiwi packaging however is different from that of the apple packages and the kiwi farmers of Kashmir complain that at the moment they are not able to find the required packaging solutions.

Can kiwi cultivation prove alternative to apple production in Kashmir?Putting all these factors together, kiwi production can be the next big horticulture venture of Kashmir. Risk minimisation is the first and far most expected benefit from this diversification. If due to some market fluctuations, apples fail to fetch the required price in the market the kiwi market can come to cushion and minimize the damage and losses. The second expected spill-over of kiwi diversification can come in the form of growth in the local corrugated industry. In the present time, the Kashmir corrugation industry mostly specializes in the production of apple boxes. However, with the growth of kiwi production, the corrugation industry will get to diversify and increase its output and employment potential. The cold-store industry of Kashmir is also expected to grow with the growth of kiwi production as the local producers can control the market supplies from time to time in light of the expected profits. The kiwi processing units also have a very high potential of starting up in the region.

 

The authors are affiliated to the Department of Economics, Islamic University of Science and Technology Awantipora & can be reached at dhaarmehak@gmail.com & misbahbashir1223@gmail.com

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