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Culture of an organisation and changing it



Culture of an organisation

BY Mohammad Mutaher Zerger

Culture of an organisation! So what is this culture? Something we subscribe to once we enter an organisation. Something that needs to be learnt? Something that’s aloud? Well, culture is culture, whether it is of a civilisation, a species or a family. It’s something, which is an invisible code of conduct, something which a person is accustomed/ acclimatised to, over a period of time, being at where he is.
Culture is like the atmosphere. It is invisible, yet its effect is felt and felt strongly. If you are able to survive within this atmosphere/ adapt to it, you feel better there, if not, you feel hypoxia.
Lots of startups these days feel the need for a culture; actually there, always is one, but it’s not the one which is feasible for their organisation now, it isn’t keeping pace with the pace of the development of that organisation, their demand is to become more adaptive and innovative and for that their culture needs to be the one which enhances that adaptation and innovation, aiding their rapid growth and expansion. So they are actually looking for a Cultural Change.
Culture change is often the most challenging part of the transformation of this young organisation. Innovation and speed demand new behaviours from leaders and employees that are often opposing/hostile to corporate cultures; which has historically been adapted/ has historically come into existence.
Culture change can’t be achieved through top-down mandates or SOP. It lives in the collective hearts and habits of people and their long term perception of “how things are done around here. Someone with authority can’t demand compliance to culture, it’s within.
Well, What are some of the things we can do to enhance the change of the auto-adapted culture of an organisation?
Simply explaining the need for a change of a culture is not going to change it, there are some vital practical steps (among numerous ones) which an organisation needs to employ over a period of time to bring in that some change in the culture, and make this culture bend towards the direction the organisation wants it to bend towards.
Cause of existence of an organisation and its benefit to society and employees at large:
The growth and actions of the organisation should speak about the benefits it is imparting to the society and employees at large; the growth should be synchronised with the vision; what this rapid growth has in store for the employee and the society as well. Some short term benefits should be employed immediately and long term ones should be clear without any fog. This will give the employee an inert, inner, sense of security, which will auto help him, adapt to the cultural change, without him consciously knowing that he is adapting to this change of culture; actually without him knowing that culture is changing.

Creating the Networks of Change

Advocacy of change and its benefits to the organisation and people within and outside the organisation should be aloud. It can be so when an organisation creates a network of advocates who have understood the benefits of this change, and this network goes out and re-networks and again re-network to make this change understood to the masses at large. It takes its similarity with the adaption of the religions worldwide, where the missionaries go all out to spread it, advocating its benefits for the one who adapts it and to the society at large.

Creating Dissemination Platforms

Creating dissemination platforms is vital for understanding the response. It’s like having dual communication with the people who are the recipients of this cultural change. Encouraging the employees and leaders to interact on these platforms is required.

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Finding money out of business idea and not business idea out of money



Finding money out of business idea

An entrepreneurial voyage

Dhaar Mehak M

The entrepreneurs approached SIDCO in order to call for help.The most important consideration of a sustainable business is market knowledge. This is followed by the viability of output and the approximate industrial location. Ibrahim Rah, a man stating from the battle to survive himself and sustain his family at an early age came a long way while establishing his firm, ‘Rock-Land Sang Tarash’ along with his friend and partner Bilal Malik. The highlight of this business unit is that the duo has expertise in ‘Hamam’ making and have lately been successfully installing Hamam’s in the first and second stories of the houses in and across south Kashmir.

Practising the skills with hammers and stones, Ibrahim learnt the art of engraving over stones from his father. Like any other local, the toll of conflict did reach his individuality and his elder brother got shot by a random bullet in the 1990s. Soon after, his father passed away in an accident and the young kid was left alone and unaided to take care of his family. Struggling at every step, as he grew old day by day, he gained skill. He wanted to do something big with and about the stones right from the beginning. Managing to sustain his family at the margin for years, he moved out to Saudi Arabia in 2011, worked hard doing stone and tile work and came back in 2015.

Finding money out of business idea

Coming back, Ibrahim tried his best to find a partner to start his long due dream of starting the stone factory. A person agreed to join in and put in a little money. Jointly the duo pooled a basic sum to buy a machine used to cut stones. At the eleventh hour, however, the person backed off and the dream that seemed farfetched till date started to sink. In 2017, Ibrahim was installing Hamam at an acquaintance’s home. While having tea with him in the evening the journey as it is coming up in conversation and the acquaintance said that he was ready and confident in pooling in for a partnership.

When everything was falling apart, exactly at that point a new beginning was being carved from the rubble. Ibrahim went back to Rajasthan ordered the machine and stayed there for three months learning everything he didn’t know and specializing in taking care of the machine. As soon as the machine was ready, they transported it to Kashmir and parked it at home. In 2018, the land got allotted to the duo (Ibrahim and Bilal) in the (SICOP) Vessu Industrial estate of Qazigund. Soon after fencing, gate fixing and generation installation, the first machine was finally installed and the production began in the Fall of 2020 after the clearance of all NoCs and the appropriate registration of the unit.

Finding money out of business idea

Currently, the ‘Rock-Land Sang Tarash’ unit is classified as a micro-unit as per the MSMEs definition (2020) based on the value of their ‘Plant and Machinery. The current turnover of the unit is limited given the infancy of its operation. The unit currently employs four machine operators, twenty labourers and two drivers; all locals. The unit specializes in Hamam installation (on any floor of the house), stone cutting, tile making, stone panelling and other related things. The vision of Ibrahim along with Bilal and the entrepreneurial zest makes this unit a uniquely inspiring story of struggle, entrepreneurial spirit and steady growth. The current plans of the duo include further specialization and innovation in stone designing for houses and offices. With no proper mechanism of advertisement in place yet, the unit has a growing client-ship based on grape-wine.

The story of Ibrahim has certain underlying entrepreneurial lessons. The lesson he sums up from his own struggle is the notion of finding money out of business ideas and not the other way round. No entrepreneurial milestone could be reached till the person tastes dust for himself. At a more universal level, the story of the Rock-Land Sang Tarash is well-grounded in the principle of feasibility and viability of the business. Given the cold weather in the region, the obsession of people with the construction of up-to-date houses and the warm-blooded human nature compelling people to keep themselves warm; the viability of a stone unit in the region is quite obvious. In light of this example, a practical lesson is put forward for all the aspiring and potential entrepreneurs of checking and accessing the feasibility of a production line/business unit in the region (of J&K) before investing in an(y) idea.

Finding money out of business idea

The local market in J&K is still a big income booster for the firms located across India given the consumer nature and income level of the state. If researched properly and accessed with a vision, the industrial potential of J&K is deemed to touch great heights capturing the local market and decreasing the problem of unemployment. At the same time, the stories of struggle can be translated into anecdotes of success made of hard, smart and steady work…

The author is an industrial researcher and can be reached at [email protected] 

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The Rise and Fall of ESSAI Industries | A tale of Kashmir entrepreneurship



Rise and Fall of ESSAI Industries

Dhaar Mehak M

The entrepreneurs approached SIDCO in order to call for help.Given the context and historicity of the state of affairs in Jammu and Kashmir (JK), the public sector influence on the industrialization process in the region has been considerably high. As such, the Department of Industries and Commerce has been the nodal public sector agency to control, coordinate and guide the industrialization process in J&K right from 1970.

One of the main corporations of the Industries Department is the J&K State Industries Development Corporation’ (SIDCO). The aim of the government behind setting up this corporation was to accelerate the process of industrialization in J&K in an advanced and modernistic manner. The main function of SIDCO is to promote the development of the Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in J&K. It is equally responsible to undertake all the Research and Development (R&D) pertaining to viability of potential units in light of location, economy, market and other business viability conditions. The smooth functioning of the firms located within the industrial estates falling in its jurisdiction are completely the responsibility of the ‘Institutional Entrepreneur’ that SIDCO is described to be.

In light of the growing job demand and falling job availability of the people, the J&K Entrepreneurship Development Institute (EDI) was established in 1997 as a premier training institute of the DIC. The main aim behind establishing the JKEDI is to put in place, foster and uphold the growth of entrepreneurship in J&K. As such, the JKEDI has been facilitating young enthusiastic and potential entrepreneurs with training, seed capital and other resources to undertake productive activities.

Rise and Fall of ESSAI Industries

And on the receiving end in one unique case are two young dynamic entrepreneurs who left their jobs in order to venture together into self-employment giving vent to their entrepreneurial spirits. Having decided to quit the 9-5 job, two of them began to research the local market and the suppliers that dominated the J&K market. One stark thing found during 2010-11 was that 98% of ‘nails’ used in the construction of all sorts across J&K are imported from the rest of the country and only 2% of the demand is met by local production. No matter the size of a nail, the fact of the matter is that the construction industry dominated J&K and ‘nails’ are a fundamental requirement in any sort of construction.

After exhaustive research, the two young men decided to start the first ‘Wall-Putty’ unit in the region. The ‘ESSAI industries’ as they named it in high hope, were facilitated by JKEDI in setting up their plant. The unit was started by employing eight people in 2013 in the Lassipora Industrial Growth Center, Pulwama falling under SICDO. The unit started off well as recalled by the duo with a market response better than their expectations.

The Flood of 2014 disrupted the production for around six months and the production was resumed in the spring of 2015. The shock of 2016 partially hampered the production process and during 2017 the production, supply, marketing and demand were as high as it could get. With this, the obvious business plan of the extension was set in the plan and the ‘No Objection Certificate’ (NoC) for the construction of ‘Plaster of Paris’ (PoP) was attained from SIDCO itself. The construction of the unit began in the March of 2018, on 4 Kanal of land in the same estate. The project cost of the PoP plant was 3.56 crore in 2018 and the trial batch was produced in the March of 2020.

Rise and Fall of ESSAI Industries

Soon after the production of the trial batch the dusting issue surfaced, which was obvious given the existent technology and practices of production pan-India and ironic in light of the NoC already given to the entrepreneurs. The vicinity reported dusting issues. Queries and complaints surfaced. And given the principle of ‘greatest good of greatest number’ the production of the PoP plant was brought to a halt. The market share of the unit declined drastically. The unit failed to meet the suppliers’ demands on time. Delays became a routine and order cancellations increased. About 45 people employed in the unit lost their jobs with the shutting down of the plant. With this, the ESSAI industries and their celebrated PoP vanished from the market leaving the entrepreneurs to find non-obvious ways to pay off the debts.

The entrepreneurs approached SIDCO in order to call for help. The very genuine and obvious demands of the unitholders are to auction the closed unit and relocation of the firm so that production could be resumed. It has been observed that the authorities have failed over the past two years to undertake these two simple tasks in order to liberate the duo from the crisis they are facing. The auctioning notices (one or two) have failed to materialize. No relocation is being facilitated and no committee is being made to look deeper into the issue and no solution has been proposed to date.

Rise and Fall of ESSAI Industries

At the individual level, the duo has been liquidating their household assets to repay the debts and pay the banks. During 2020-21 they have repaid Rs 32 lakh to the bank while there has been no production. Both the entrepreneurs who are in their 30s are facing hypertension and are on high medication. They have been living stressful lives all of a sudden with the halt in production and facing a downfall that is technically unjustified. While narrating their woeful story they sigh remembering the good times when they were capturing the local market and doing excellently well in business.

The most important outcomes from examples like these are the wrong market signalling. Instances like the above one make entrepreneurship look risky and non-rewarding. In the region of J&K where the job market is already constrained and the unemployment rate is 22%, the only viable solution is that of self-employment, the scope of administrative bottlenecks and callous approach is literally nil. DIC and all its affiliated corporations must revisit their mandates and understand the serious role they are charged with. While the above issue should have been sorted out in a weeks’ time, it can’t be left lingering in thin air for years at a stretch. This write-up will be followed back in three months’ time to access the latest development on the self-employment scenario in the region in light of the case just highlighted here.

The author is an industrial researcher and can be reached at [email protected] 


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Seri-Business: Emerging entrepreneurship model in sericulture



Emerging entrepreneurship model in sericulture

Naveed Hamid

Aina Bhat

 Sericulture is one of India’s and Asia’s oldest sectors. Sericulture is a labour-intensive and commercially desirable agro-cottage, a forest-based industry that falls under the cottage and small-scale market. The end product of this industry is silk. It is particularly well suited to rural residents employed in agriculture, entrepreneurs, and artisans because it needs minimal investment.

It provides income and jobs to the rural poor, especially small-scale farmers and other vulnerable and poorer members of society. Kashmir produces Mulberry and Tasar silk in a non-traditional sericulture state. The growth of bivoltine sericulture has been a priority sector of the Indian silk industry, but progress has yet to reach the targets. One of them is sericulture.

In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, sericulture holds a special place. This is India’s only conventional Univoltine belt capable of processing silk with qualities equal to the finest imported raw silk of standard quality available on foreign markets. Silkworm rearing offers part-time jobs to around 30,000 households, in addition to providing permanent employment to 5,000 people in the public sector. Furthermore, the silk industry employs about 10,000 full-time weavers in about 2,000 private sector units in the valley. As a result, almost 2.15 million workers are employed in this sector, either full-time or part-time. Until 1988, the silk industry was a state monopoly, and farmers received no revenue from the selling of cocoons at the government-set floor price. It was given much thought as to how to reclaim its former glory. The market was de-monopolized, and plant control was passed to farmers with permission to sell surplus leaves and earn money.

The Indian silk industry is one of the largest generators of employment and foreign exchange for the country as sericulture activities spread across 52,360 villages. India enjoys a unique global position in terms of the production of all commercially useful varieties of silk. India is the second-largest producer of silk. Sericulture provided employment to over 9.1 million people in India during FY19.

The Exports of silk and silk products from India reached US$ 291.36 million in 2018-19 and US$ 243.52 million in FY20 (till December 2019). Source: CSB Banglore.

Status of Indian Sericulture Industry

Raw Silk Production 35,468 MT
Employment: 9.2 Million
Size of the Industry Rs 15,000 crores
Credit Flow Rs 500 Crores
Export Earnings Rs. 2100 crores
Raw Silk Imports 3712 MT (Rs.1200 crores)




  • Rich natural resources & favourable climate
  • Traditional avocation (way of life), rich design
  • Strong domestic demand-pull
  • Rich heritage of handloom weaving & designs
  • Produces all five commercial varieties of silk


  • Adequate domestic demand for output
  • Low investment & moderate returns
  • High labour cost of silk production in other
  • Nations give India a good opportunity
  • The sector is a huge employment provider
  • Availability of efficient m/c & technologies


  • Highly unorganized & labour-intensive sector
  • Small producers and small converters
  • Primitive/traditional methods/technologies
  • Outdated machinery.
  • Age-old designs & motifs


  • Fluctuating international silk prices
  • China- the ‘big brother’ is always a threat
  • Inadequate resources at states’ disposal
  • Heavy dependence on a single product
  • Low capabilities of primary producers
  • Fluctuating market demand – recession

Entrepreneurship Concept

Entrepreneurship is a mindset that involves taking calculated chances and confidence in order to achieve a specific aim. It’s a hybrid ability that combines a number of strengths and characteristics. An entrepreneur is someone that has the drive to do or manufacture something unique, organizes production, takes chances, and handles the economic insecurity that comes with owning a company. The collection of such attributes the entrepreneur possesses is called entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurship in Sericulture

Sericulture is the discipline and practice of silk production. Agriculture and associated farm operations have traditionally been important to the Indian economy. Sericulture, as an agro-based company, has a major impact on rural people’s economic prospects.

It has the potential to generate jobs, especially in rural areas. Sericulture is a multifaceted industry that includes food plant cultivation (mulberry leaf processing), silkworm rearing (cocoon production), silkworm egg production, silk reeling (yarn production), spinning, warp and weft production, printing and dyeing, weaving (fabric production), finishing, textile design, and marketing etc. The industry encompasses a wide range of on-farm and non-farm activities, necessitating a wide range of expertise, as well as a varied population of people, and bringing people from all walks of life together to work on silk processing. Sericulture is a year-round activity with a variety of career openings. Sericulture is a low-cost, high-yielding crop that produces five to six crops per year. With minimum upkeep, the mulberry plantation will yield reliably for the next 15-20 years. India currently earns over Rs 4,000 crores from the sale of silk fabrics, waste, and garments. Aside from high export potential, silk has a strong domestic demand and a strong handloom base combined with artisan abilities, which is India’s true strength of the Indian sericulture industry.

Sericulture has a significant socioeconomic effect and has the potential to change people’s lives by creating viable and long-term job opportunities. Since it entails a variety of methods, from mulberry plantation to silkworm rearing, spinning, spinning, and selling, it employs a vast number of people, including women. Sericulture has the potential to offer gainful jobs to more than 15 Lac citizens in the state if it is encouraged on a larger scale through value addition.

The various entrepreneurial opportunities in the sericulture industry starting from leaf to fabric production are hereunder discussed:

Raising high-yielding mulberry saplings, silkworm egg preparation and supply, Chawki rearing (young age silkworm rearing), cocoon processing, silk reeling, Zari manufacturing, sericulture byproduct recycling, cocoon and silk-based handicrafts, the silk trade, cocoon crafting and Pet Food, Protein diet foods, and so on.

It is clear that the sericulture industry provides outstanding job prospects as well as a variety of entrepreneurship opportunities. Sericulture, as an agro-based company, plays a significant role in determining the economic fate of rural people and fits well into India’s rural system, where agriculture remains the primary occupation. Sericulture provides job opportunities not only for rural residents but also for skilled youth in semiurban and urban areas. Sericulture development would undoubtedly result in a thriving rural by providing income-generating entrepreneurship opportunities, thus reducing poverty and halting rural-to-urban migration.

Suggestions for boosting the Entrepreneurship in Sericulture:

  • Up gradation of Departmental Nurseries/ farms to improve Mulberry saplings /leaf production
  • Cocoon and Silk yarn marketing support system to the local Reelers.
  • Enhancement in Cocoon Bank Revolving fund
  • Infrastructure development at Farmers’ level
  • Popularizing Multi cropping and green marketing
  • Incentive on cocoon and silk production to farmers/reelers
  • Infrastructure development/up-gradation support
  • Introduction of cocoon crop insurance scheme
  • Development of Integrated Silk parks.
  • Silk Branding push.
  • Private Sector Involvement.
  • R&D from Research Institutes with Skill developments through capacity buildings.

Encouraging the young talent to take up entrepreneurship as a career (Seri-Business)

To inspire young people to engage in entrepreneurship ventures, a variety of methods have been used. Many young people today have business ideas, but only a small percentage of them have the capacity and opportunity to transform such ideas into profitable enterprises. The ability of youth to transform their inventions into businesses is critical to the future of small business start-ups. The ability to recognize an advantage and put it to use is largely dependent on the youth’s willingness to engage in such entrepreneurial practices. Participation in entrepreneurial educational programs has a strong impact on the desire to launch a new company.

To make the dream business a reality, youths need inspiration from all stakeholders, including the government, lecturers, families, friends, and religious groups, either by funding or other support mechanisms. As a result, many young people who are willing to take the risk of starting a new business are concerned about access to resources such as funding and inspiration.

Starting a Seri-Business Startup

The phases of starting a profitable company begin with identifying the motivations or commitments for starting one. After acquiring such motives, the next step is to discover a viable idea. This idea must be attractive and validated on whether it can meet customer needs. The next step is to look for the necessary resources required such as materials, source of funding and quality suppliers. The final part is to apply the plan by getting into full business and then build a professional network to sustain the venture. This model is divided into four basic success components. These factors are idea and market, motivation and determination, resources and ability.

Emerging entrepreneurship model in sericulture

                             Entreprenurship activities Framework Model


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