Sericulture is one of India’s and Asia’s oldest sectors. Sericulture is a labour-intensive and commercially desirable agro-cottage, a forest-based industry that falls under the cottage and small-scale market. The end product of this industry is silk. It is particularly well suited to rural residents employed in agriculture, entrepreneurs, and artisans because it needs minimal investment.
It provides income and jobs to the rural poor, especially small-scale farmers and other vulnerable and poorer members of society. Kashmir produces Mulberry and Tasar silk in a non-traditional sericulture state. The growth of bivoltine sericulture has been a priority sector of the Indian silk industry, but progress has yet to reach the targets. One of them is sericulture.
In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, sericulture holds a special place. This is India’s only conventional Univoltine belt capable of processing silk with qualities equal to the finest imported raw silk of standard quality available on foreign markets. Silkworm rearing offers part-time jobs to around 30,000 households, in addition to providing permanent employment to 5,000 people in the public sector. Furthermore, the silk industry employs about 10,000 full-time weavers in about 2,000 private sector units in the valley. As a result, almost 2.15 million workers are employed in this sector, either full-time or part-time. Until 1988, the silk industry was a state monopoly, and farmers received no revenue from the selling of cocoons at the government-set floor price. It was given much thought as to how to reclaim its former glory. The market was de-monopolized, and plant control was passed to farmers with permission to sell surplus leaves and earn money.
The Indian silk industry is one of the largest generators of employment and foreign exchange for the country as sericulture activities spread across 52,360 villages. India enjoys a unique global position in terms of the production of all commercially useful varieties of silk. India is the second-largest producer of silk. Sericulture provided employment to over 9.1 million people in India during FY19.
The Exports of silk and silk products from India reached US$ 291.36 million in 2018-19 and US$ 243.52 million in FY20 (till December 2019). Source: CSB Banglore.
Status of Indian Sericulture Industry
|Raw Silk Production||35,468 MT|
|Size of the Industry||Rs 15,000 crores|
|Credit Flow||Rs 500 Crores|
|Export Earnings||Rs. 2100 crores|
|Raw Silk Imports||3712 MT (Rs.1200 crores)|
- Rich natural resources & favourable climate
- Traditional avocation (way of life), rich design
- Strong domestic demand-pull
- Rich heritage of handloom weaving & designs
- Produces all five commercial varieties of silk
- Adequate domestic demand for output
- Low investment & moderate returns
- High labour cost of silk production in other
- Nations give India a good opportunity
- The sector is a huge employment provider
- Availability of efficient m/c & technologies
- Highly unorganized & labour-intensive sector
- Small producers and small converters
- Primitive/traditional methods/technologies
- Outdated machinery.
- Age-old designs & motifs
- Fluctuating international silk prices
- China- the ‘big brother’ is always a threat
- Inadequate resources at states’ disposal
- Heavy dependence on a single product
- Low capabilities of primary producers
- Fluctuating market demand – recession
Entrepreneurship is a mindset that involves taking calculated chances and confidence in order to achieve a specific aim. It’s a hybrid ability that combines a number of strengths and characteristics. An entrepreneur is someone that has the drive to do or manufacture something unique, organizes production, takes chances, and handles the economic insecurity that comes with owning a company. The collection of such attributes the entrepreneur possesses is called entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurship in Sericulture
Sericulture is the discipline and practice of silk production. Agriculture and associated farm operations have traditionally been important to the Indian economy. Sericulture, as an agro-based company, has a major impact on rural people’s economic prospects.
It has the potential to generate jobs, especially in rural areas. Sericulture is a multifaceted industry that includes food plant cultivation (mulberry leaf processing), silkworm rearing (cocoon production), silkworm egg production, silk reeling (yarn production), spinning, warp and weft production, printing and dyeing, weaving (fabric production), finishing, textile design, and marketing etc. The industry encompasses a wide range of on-farm and non-farm activities, necessitating a wide range of expertise, as well as a varied population of people, and bringing people from all walks of life together to work on silk processing. Sericulture is a year-round activity with a variety of career openings. Sericulture is a low-cost, high-yielding crop that produces five to six crops per year. With minimum upkeep, the mulberry plantation will yield reliably for the next 15-20 years. India currently earns over Rs 4,000 crores from the sale of silk fabrics, waste, and garments. Aside from high export potential, silk has a strong domestic demand and a strong handloom base combined with artisan abilities, which is India’s true strength of the Indian sericulture industry.
Sericulture has a significant socioeconomic effect and has the potential to change people’s lives by creating viable and long-term job opportunities. Since it entails a variety of methods, from mulberry plantation to silkworm rearing, spinning, spinning, and selling, it employs a vast number of people, including women. Sericulture has the potential to offer gainful jobs to more than 15 Lac citizens in the state if it is encouraged on a larger scale through value addition.
The various entrepreneurial opportunities in the sericulture industry starting from leaf to fabric production are hereunder discussed:
Raising high-yielding mulberry saplings, silkworm egg preparation and supply, Chawki rearing (young age silkworm rearing), cocoon processing, silk reeling, Zari manufacturing, sericulture byproduct recycling, cocoon and silk-based handicrafts, the silk trade, cocoon crafting and Pet Food, Protein diet foods, and so on.
It is clear that the sericulture industry provides outstanding job prospects as well as a variety of entrepreneurship opportunities. Sericulture, as an agro-based company, plays a significant role in determining the economic fate of rural people and fits well into India’s rural system, where agriculture remains the primary occupation. Sericulture provides job opportunities not only for rural residents but also for skilled youth in semiurban and urban areas. Sericulture development would undoubtedly result in a thriving rural by providing income-generating entrepreneurship opportunities, thus reducing poverty and halting rural-to-urban migration.
Suggestions for boosting the Entrepreneurship in Sericulture:
- Up gradation of Departmental Nurseries/ farms to improve Mulberry saplings /leaf production
- Cocoon and Silk yarn marketing support system to the local Reelers.
- Enhancement in Cocoon Bank Revolving fund
- Infrastructure development at Farmers’ level
- Popularizing Multi cropping and green marketing
- Incentive on cocoon and silk production to farmers/reelers
- Infrastructure development/up-gradation support
- Introduction of cocoon crop insurance scheme
- Development of Integrated Silk parks.
- Silk Branding push.
- Private Sector Involvement.
- R&D from Research Institutes with Skill developments through capacity buildings.
Encouraging the young talent to take up entrepreneurship as a career (Seri-Business)
To inspire young people to engage in entrepreneurship ventures, a variety of methods have been used. Many young people today have business ideas, but only a small percentage of them have the capacity and opportunity to transform such ideas into profitable enterprises. The ability of youth to transform their inventions into businesses is critical to the future of small business start-ups. The ability to recognize an advantage and put it to use is largely dependent on the youth’s willingness to engage in such entrepreneurial practices. Participation in entrepreneurial educational programs has a strong impact on the desire to launch a new company.
To make the dream business a reality, youths need inspiration from all stakeholders, including the government, lecturers, families, friends, and religious groups, either by funding or other support mechanisms. As a result, many young people who are willing to take the risk of starting a new business are concerned about access to resources such as funding and inspiration.
Starting a Seri-Business Startup
The phases of starting a profitable company begin with identifying the motivations or commitments for starting one. After acquiring such motives, the next step is to discover a viable idea. This idea must be attractive and validated on whether it can meet customer needs. The next step is to look for the necessary resources required such as materials, source of funding and quality suppliers. The final part is to apply the plan by getting into full business and then build a professional network to sustain the venture. This model is divided into four basic success components. These factors are idea and market, motivation and determination, resources and ability.
Entreprenurship activities Framework Model